Volpp KG, Navathe AS, Lee EO, Mugishii M, Troxel AB, Caldarella K, Hodlofski A, Bernheim S, Drye E, Yoshimoto J, Takata K, Stollar MB, Emanuel EJ.
Healthcare (Amsterdam, Netherlands), September 2018.
To describe the process of developing a new physician payment system based on value and transitioning away from a fee-for-service payment system
Descriptive. This paper describes a recent initiative involving redesign of primary care provider payment in the State of Hawaii. While there has been extensive discussion about switching payment from volume to value in recent years, much of this change has happened at the organizational level and this initiative focused on changing the incentives for individual providers.
Descriptive paper. In this paper we discuss the approach taken to shift incentives from fee-for-service towards value using behavioral economics as a conceptual framework for program design. We summarize the new payment system, challenges in its design, and our approach to piloting of different behavioral economic strategies to improve performance.
This paper will provide useful guidance to health plans or health delivery systems considering shifting primary care payment away from fee-for-service towards value highlighting some of the design challenges and necessary compromises in implementing such a system at scale.
Liao JM, Emanuel EJ, Whittington GL, Small DS, Troxel AB, Zhu J, Zhong W, Navathe AS.
American Journal of Managed Care, June 2018.
Objectives: To describe the extent of and longitudinal changes in physician practice variation with respect to implant costs, institutional postacute care (PAC) provider utilization, and total episode payments, as well as to evaluate the association between physician volume and quality and these outcomes.
Study Design: Observational study.
Methods: We combined claims and internal hospital cost data for 34 physicians responsible for 3614 joint replacement episodes under bundled payment at Baptist Health System (BHS). Multilevel multivariable generalized linear models were employed and the intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to quantify between-physician variation.
Results: There was significant between-physician variation in implant costs, institutional PAC provider utilization, and total episode payments not explained by observable variables (P <.001 for all). Over 5 years, the ICC decreased from 0.26 to 0.06, 0.15 to 0.13, and 0.12 to 0.10 for implant costs, institutional PAC provider utilization, and total episode payments, respectively, but differences were not statistically significant. Both higher physician case volume and quality were associated with decreased total episode payments and institutional PAC provider utilization, but not with changes in implant costs.
Conclusions: Considerable physician practice variation was observed under bundled payment at BHS and decreased to a greater degree for implant costs than institutional PAC provider utilization or total episode payments. Institutional PAC provider utilization and total episode payments were associated with physician volume and quality. Although some organizational strategies achieve gains by reducing physician practice variation, variation reduction is not an absolute requisite for success under bundled payment.
Navathe AS, Liao JM, Polsky D, Shah Y, Huang Q, Zhu J, Lyon ZM, Wang R, Rolnick J, Martinez JR, Emanuel EJ.
Health Affairs June 2018.
We analyzed data from Medicare and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey to compare characteristics and baseline performance among hospitals in Medicare’s voluntary (Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative, or BPCI) and mandatory (Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Model, or CJR) joint replacement bundled payment programs. BPCI hospitals had higher mean patient volume and were larger and more teaching intensive than were CJR hospitals, but the two groups had similar risk exposure and baseline episode quality and cost. BPCI hospitals also had higher cost attributable to institutional postacute care, largely driven by inpatient rehabilitation facility cost. These findings suggest that while both voluntary and mandatory approaches can play a role in engaging hospitals in bundled payment, mandatory programs can produce more robust, generalizable evidence. Either mandatory or additional targeted voluntary programs may be required to engage more hospitals in bundled payment programs.
Song Z, Navathe AS, Emanuel EJ, Volpp KG.
American Journal of Managed Care, March 2018.
The United States is simultaneously moving toward value-based payments for populations and precision medicine for individuals. During this evolution, innovations in payment and delivery that enhance tailoring of treatments to individuals while improving the value of care are needed. We propose one such innovation that would allow physician payment and patient cost sharing to better reflect the value of care by allowing the appropriateness of a service for a given patient in a given clinical situation to play a more meaningful role in the design of such incentives. We introduce the idea of a payment modifier, based on indication and appropriateness, and discuss its advantages and challenges to implementation.
Emanuel EJ, Gudbransen E.
JAMA, February 2018.
In this Viewpoint, Ezekiel Emanuel argues that emotional intelligence (EQ) is as important as IQ for the effective practice of medicine and calls for medical schools to evaluate the EQ of applicants and provide opportunities to enhance EQ among medical students.
Emanuel EJ, Glickman A, Johnson D.
JAMA, November 2017
This Viewpoint proposes a new Affordability Index measure, the ratio of the mean cost of an employer-sponsored family health insurance policy divided by median household income, to describe US families’ ability to pay for health care.
Grady C, Bedarida G, Sinaii N, Gregorio MA, Emanuel EJ.
Clinical Trials, October 2017.
Phase 1 trials with healthy volunteers are an integral step in drug development. Commentators worry about the possible exploitation of healthy volunteers because they are assumed to be disadvantaged, marginalized, and inappropriately influenced by the offer of money for research for which they do not appreciate the inherent risks. Yet there are limited data to support or refute these concerns. This study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, motivations, and enrollment decision-making of a large cohort of healthy volunteers.
We used a cross-sectional anonymous survey of 1194 healthy volunteers considering enrollment in phase 1 studies at Pfizer Clinical Research Units in New Haven, CT; Brussels, Belgium; and Singapore. Descriptive statistics describe motivations and socio-demographic characteristics. Comparisons between groups were examined.
The majority rated consideration of risks as more important to their enrollment decision than the amount of money, despite reporting that their primary motivation was financial. Risk, time, money, the competence and friendliness of research staff, and contributing to medical research were important factors influencing enrollment decisions for most participants. The majority of healthy volunteers in this cohort were male, single, reported higher than high school education, and 70% had previous research experience. Many reported low annual incomes (50% below USD$25,000) and high rates of unemployment (33% overall). Nonetheless, risk as an important consideration, money, and other reported considerations and motivations, except for time, did not vary by income, employment, education, or previous experience. There were regional differences in both socio-demographic characteristics and factors important to participation decisions.
Healthy volunteers in phase 1 studies consider risks as more important to their enrollment decisions than the amount of money offered, although most are motivated to participate by the offer of money. Healthy volunteers are indeed low income, disproportionately unemployed, and have significant prior research experience. Yet these factors do not appear to affect either their motivations for participation or factors important to their research enrollment decisions.
Chen SC, Sinaii N, Bedarida G, Gregorio MA, Emanuel E, Grady C.
Clinical Trial, October 2017
Healthy volunteers in phase 1 clinical trials contribute to the development of safe drugs and other biologics and accept risks and burdens without anticipated health benefits from participation. Although emerging data have shown that healthy volunteers are influenced by risk, some still worry that financial incentives lead them to take on unreasonable risk. Yet little is known about healthy volunteers' preferences and how they make choices about enrolling in research studies.
We surveyed 654 healthy volunteers at the end of their participation in a phase 1 Pfizer trial in the United States, Belgium, and Singapore to examine their reported willingness to enroll in studies of different types, with various procedures, and with possible side-effects.
The majority of respondents were willing to join many kinds of studies, but fewer were willing to participate in first-in-human vaccine studies or studies of psychiatric drugs than in other study types. With regard to procedures, a substantial proportion were unwilling to participate in studies that involved invasive procedures, such as a lumbar puncture (45.4%) and bone marrow biopsy (42.3%), but willing to participate in studies with less invasive procedures such as a computed tomography scan of the heart (86.8%), magnetic resonance imaging (87.4%), and skin allergy testing (86.8%). Although there was some variation by gender and region, the majority were willing to participate in studies with side-effects like pain (80%) or nausea and vomiting (64%), but only a minority were willing to join if the research drug would result in their having a one in a million chance of death (34.4%), a small chance of kidney damage (16.7%), or influence how their mind works (23.2%; Figure 4).
Our results suggest that healthy volunteers are willing to participate in a wide range of types of phase 1 clinical trials, and express preferences for low risk and familiar studies and study procedures, preferences which are partially affected by offers of payment.
Persad GC, Emanuel EJ.
Hastings Center Report, September 2017.
When Dr. Hortense screens her patients in Chicago for cervical dysplasia and cancer, she conducts a pelvic exam, takes a sample of cervical cells, and sends them for Pap cytology and human papilloma virus DNA co-testing. But when she conducts cervical cancer screening in Botswana, she employs a much simpler diagnostic strategy. She applies acetic acid to highlight precancerous lesions and visually inspects the cervix-a technique known as the VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid) method. She treats suspicious lesions with cryotherapy. There are multiple reasons that Dr. Hortense uses VIA in developing countries. It requires no specialized laboratory facilities or highly trained personnel. With immediate results, there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment, ensuring that patients are not lost to follow-up. Most importantly, VIA is considerably cheaper than Pap and HPV co-testing. This difference in care between Chicago and Botswana presents an ethical dilemma in global health: is it ethically acceptable to provide some patients cheaper treatments that are less effective or more toxic than the treatments other patients receive? We argue that it is ethical to consider local resource constraints when deciding what interventions to provide. The provision of cheaper, less effective health care is frequently the most effective way of promoting health and realizing the ethical values of utility, equality, and priority to the worst off.
Navathe AS, Song Z, Emanuel EJ.
JAMA, June 2017.
This Viewpoint discusses bundled payment models and suggests ways in which the next generation of episode-based payments can better align with population health.
McCoy MS, Emanuel EJ.
JAMA, May 2017
This Viewpoint argues that “potential” conflicts of interest (COIs) are actual COIs that are effectively managed, and calls for clear terminology to describe the severity of COIs and how they are identified and managed.