Ezekiel J. Emanuel

You are viewing 20 posts in the category Feature Writing with the tag Health Care

Nov 17

Statement Supporting OSHA’s COVID Vaccine Requirement

Leading Health Care Experts and Professional Organizations: Businesses Should Support OSHA’s COVID Vaccination Mandate

Groups include American Medical Association, American College of Physicians, National Hispanic Medical Association, National Medical Association, and the American Public Health Association 


(Nov. 18, 2021) Organizations representing the country’s doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and other health professionals joined with some of the country’s most prominent health care experts to call on the business community to support the new federal requirement that those working for companies with more than 100 employees be vaccinated for COVID. 


Those signing the statement include professional organizations such as: the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, the National Hispanic Medical Association, the National League for Nursing, the National Medical Association, and the American Public Health Association plus prominent health leaders such as: Ezekiel Emanuel, Robert M. Wachter, Eric Topol, Tom Frieden, Andy Slavitt, Megan Ranney, Rick Bright, Ashish K. Jha, Luciana Borio, UchéBlackstock, Oni Blackstock, Michael Osterholm, and David Michaels. 


“Instead of wasting time in court trying to overturn these mandates, business leaders should be focused on how to protect their employees from COVID through vaccination. That’s the only way we’ll be able to return to normal and stabilize our economy,” said Emanuel, Vice Provost for Global Initiatives at the University of Pennsylvania, who organized the statement. “We’ve seen over and over that employer vaccine mandates work to raise vaccination rates, and they don’t cause workforce shortages. It’s time for the business community to step up and show the leadership our nation needs now.”


Vaccines are extremely effective in preventing COVID cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Compared to the vaccinated, the unvaccinated are 11 times more likely to die. Any risk in receiving the vaccine is considerably less common and less serious than the consequences of contracting COVID.


“The available COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective, and the widespread use of these vaccines is the best way to keep COVID-19 from spreading within workplaces. The more workers who get vaccinated, the closer we are to slowing the spread of the virus and creating a safer environment for everyone,” said AMA President Gerald E. Harmon, M.D., whose organization filed an amicus brief last week to preserve OSHA’s COVID-19 vaccine and testing mandate temporary standard. “We know that vaccine mandates work, they result in more people getting vaccinated. Now is the time for the public and private sectors to come together, listen to the science, and mandate vaccination so we can defeat the COVID-19 pandemic.”


“When we first required health care workers to be vaccinated a few months ago, we anticipated some push back, but the results have been astonishing: nearly all health care workers have received their shots, and now our health care facilities and patients are better protected,” said Dr. Elena Rios, President and CEO of the National Hispanic Medical Association. “We’re at a critical crossroads in the pandemic where we have the ability to prevent the needless loss of lives and livelihoods, we just need more people to have the will to do so. It’s clear all employers should protect their workforces and their communities.”


“We cannot get this pandemic under control without increasing the vaccination rate,” said Wachter, Professor and Chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). “And, at this point, the most effective way to do that is through mandates – which will protect workers and create safer workplaces. We encourage all employers to voluntarily enact this mandate as soon as possible.”


OSHA issued an emergency temporary standard on November 4, 2021 that established binding requirements for employers with 100 or more employees to mandate that their workers are either fully vaccinated or tested for COVID at least once per week. The rule would go into effect on January 4, 2022 and cover 84 million U.S. workers. National business industry organizations have since sued the Biden Administration over the requirements. Last week, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit temporarily halted the mandate.


The joint statement and full list of signatories is below: 


Statement Supporting OSHA’s COVID Vaccination or Testing Requirement


Tragically, over 750,000 Americans have died of COVID since the beginning of 2020.1 Many thousands have died from COVID contracted on the job, such as while caring for patients, supporting the elderly, preparing food for customers, selling goods in stores, and protecting the public from crime, fires, and other threats.  


For example, in North Carolina nearly a quarter of COVID clusters are linked to workplace, retail and food settings.2 COVID has also inflicted many other societal harms including loss of educational achievement and job opportunities, and increases in mental health challenges and social isolation, all of which have disproportionately hurt the most vulnerable.3,4


To overcome COVID and the highly transmissible Delta variant, and return to “normal,” we need to substantially increase the vaccination rate from its current level of under 60 percent. We need to vaccinate about another quarter of the American population, roughly 80 million more people.  


Vaccines are effective in preventing COVID cases, hospitalizations and, most importantly, deaths. Compared to the vaccinated, the unvaccinated are 11 times more likely to die.5 A recent study shows that in the United States, vaccines are five times more effective in preventing serious illness and hospitalization than a previous COVID infection.6 Any vaccine risk is considerably less common and less serious than the consequences of contracting COVID.


Finally, we know that vaccine mandates are effective.  When employers require workers to get vaccinated, vaccination ratesincrease to over 90 percent.7-9  This is especially true for people who intended to get vaccinated but have just delayed or procrastinated. Courts have repeatedly supported the legality of employer mandates. 


We — physicians, nurses and advanced practice clinicians, health experts, and health care professional societies — fully support the requirement that workers at companies with over 100 workers be vaccinated or tested. This requirement by the Occupational, Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is reasonable and essential to protect workers.


We encourage all businesses with 100 or more employees to not delay in implementing this standard.


Requiring masks for all unvaccinated workers by the December 5th deadline will be key to keeping customers and fellow workers safe during the holiday shopping and travel season. And getting workers vaccinated or tested by the January 4th deadline will further protect workplaces and communities, bringing us closer to normal life and the end of this pandemic. 


From the first day of this pandemic, businesses have wanted to vanquish this virus. Now is their chance to step up and show they are serious. Implementing these commonsense OSHA standards is an important step for our workers, businesses, and the nation as a whole. 


Signatories

Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP)

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI)

American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM)

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE)

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)

American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST)

American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP)

American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)

American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT)

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians (ACOEP)

American College of Physicians (ACP)

American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM)

American College of Surgeons (ACS)

American Epilepsy Society (AES)

American Geriatrics Society (AGS)

American Medical Association (AMA)

American Medical Rehabilitation Providers Association (AMRPA) 

American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA)

American Public Health Association (APHA)

American Psychiatric Association (APA)

American Psychological Association (APA)

American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) 

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)

American Society of Hematology (ASH)

American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO)

American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO)

American Thoracic Society (ATS)

Association for Clinical Oncology (ASCO)

Association of Academic Health Centers (AAHC)

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)

Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD)

Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses (APHON)

Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN)

Association of Surgical Technologists (AST)

College of American Pathologists (CAP)

Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS)

Doctors for America (DFA)

Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association (HOPA)

Illinois Pharmacists Association (IPhA)

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

LeadingAge

National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP)

National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP)

National Hispanic Medical Association (NHMA)

National League for Nursing (NLN)

National Medical Association (NMA)

National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC)

New Hampshire Nurses Association (NHNA)

Nurses Who Vaccinate (NWV)

Organization for Associate Degree Nursing (OADN)

Philippine Nurses Association of America (PNAA)

Society of Emergency Medicine Physician Assistants (SEMPA)

Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO)

Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM)

Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP)

Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR)

Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)

The John A. Hartford Foundation (JAHF)

The Patient Is U Foundation (TPIU)

Transcultural Nursing Society (TCNS)



Nahid Bhadelia, MD, MALD
Founding Director, Boston University Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases Policy and Research
 

Uché Blackstock, MD
Founder and CEO, Advancing Health Equity
 

Oni Blackstock, MD, MHS
Founder and Executive Director, Health Justice
 

Luciana Borio, MD
 

Rick Bright, PhD
Former U.S. HHS Deputy Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and Director of BARDA
 

Esther Choo, MD, MPH
Professor of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University
 

Cedric Dark, MD, MPH, FACEP
Assistant Professor | Emergency Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
 

Natalie Dean, PhD
Assistant Professor, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University
 

Carlos Del Río, MD
Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine
International Secretary for the National Academy of Medicine 
 

Mark Dybul, MD
Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University
Former Head of PEPFAR and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
 

Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD, PhD
Vice Provost for Global Initiatives, University of Pennsylvania
 

Jeremy Samuel Faust, MD, MS
Brigham and Women's Hospital Department of Emergency Medicine/Division of Health Policy Public Health
Harvard Medical School
 

Tom Frieden, MD, MPH
President and CEO, Resolve to Save Lives
 

Akiko Iwasaki, PhD
Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Immunobiology and Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology
Yale University 
 

Ashish K. Jha, MD, MPH
Dean, Brown University School of Public Health
 

Krutika Kuppalli, MD, FIDSA
Chair, Global Health Committee
Infectious Diseases Society of America
 

Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, MD, MBA
President Emerita, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
 

Syra Madad, DHSc, MSc, MCP
Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Boston University
 

David Michaels, PhD, MPH
Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University
Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health 2009-2017
 

Michael Joseph Mina, MD, PhD
Epidemiologist, Immunologist and Physician
 

John P. Moore, PhD
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine
 

Saad B. Omer, MBBS, MPH, PhD
Director, Yale Institute for Global Health 
 

Michael Osterholm, PhD, MPH
Regents Professor, McKnight Presidential Endowed Chair in Public Health; Director, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota
 

Saskia Popescu, PhD, MPH, MA, CIC
Assistant Professor, Biodefense Program - Schar School of Policy and Government  
George Mason University
 

Megan L. Ranney, MD, MPH
Professor of Emergency Medicine & Associate Dean of Strategy & Innovation, School of Public Health & Alpert Medical School, Brown University
 

Irwin Redlener, MD, FAAP
Senior Research Scholar, Earth Institute at Columbia University
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
 

Andy Slavitt, MBA
Former White House Senior Advisor COVID Response
Former Acting CMS Administrator 
 

Craig Spencer MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Population and Family Health
Columbia University Irving Medical Center
 

Eric Topol, MD
Executive VP and Professor, Scripps Research
 

Seth Trueger, MD, MPH, FACEP
Northwestern University
 

Robert M. Wachter, MD
Chair, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
 

Michelle A. Williams, ScD
Dean of the Faculty, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, & Angelopoulos Professor in Public Health and International Development
 


References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID Data Tracker. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#datatracker-home[Accessed 12 November 2021].  
  2. NC Department of Health and Human Services. COVID-19 Clusters in North Carolina. https://covid19.ncdhhs.gov/media/725/download [Accessed 12 November 2021]. 
  3. Dorn E, Hancock B, Sarakatsannis J, Viruleg E. COVID-19 and learning loss - disparities grow and students need help. McKinsey & Company. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/covid-19-and-learning-loss-disparities-grow-and-students-need-help [Accessed 12 November 2021]. 
  4. Czeisler M, et al. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, June 24–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 69(32);1049-1057.  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6932a1.htm [Accessed 12 November 2021].  
  5. Sullivan P. CDC data: Unvaccinated 11 times more likely to die from COVID-19 than fully vaccinated. The Hillhttps://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/576980-cdc-data-unvaccinated-11-times-more-likely-to-die-from-covid-19-than-fully[Accessed 12 November 2021]. 
  6. Bozio C, et al. Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19–Like Illness with Infection-Induced or mRNA Vaccine-Induced SARS-CoV-2 Immunity — Nine States, January–September 2021. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 70(44);1539-1544.  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7044e1.htm?s_cid=mm7044e1_w [Accessed 12 November 2021].  
  7. Hirsch L. After Mandate, 91% of Tyson Workers Are Vaccinated. The New York Timeshttps://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/30/business/tyson-foods-vaccination-mandate-rate.html [Accessed 12 November 2021].   
  8. Marcos C. United Airlines to Fire Workers Who Refused to Get a Vaccination. The New York Times. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/29/business/united-airlines-vaccine-mandate.html [Accessed 12 November 2021].   
  9. Hubler S. ‘Mandates Are Working’: Employer Ultimatums Lift Vaccination Rates, So Far. The New York Times. Available from:  https://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/30/us/california-vaccine-mandate-health-care.html [Accessed 12 November 2021].  

Statement Supporting OSHA’s COVID Vaccine Requirement

Categories: Feature Writing

Sep 15

Making Vaccines Available to Other Countries Before Offering Domestic Booster Vaccinations

Schaefer GO, Leland RJ, Emanuel EJ.

JAMA, Sept 2021

Read the Full Article Here


Jul 26

Joint Statement in Support of COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates for All Workers in Health and Long-Term Care

Joint Statement in Support of COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates for All Workers in Health and Long-Term Care


Due to the recent COVID-19 surge and the availability of safe and effective vaccines, our health care organizations and societies advocate that all health care and long-term care employers require their workers to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. This is the logical fulfillment of the ethical commitment of all health care workers to put patients as well as residents of long-term care facilities first and take all steps necessary to ensure their health and well-being.


Because of highly contagious variants, including the Delta variant, and significant numbers of unvaccinated people, COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths are once again rising throughout the United States.1 Vaccination is the primary way to put the pandemic behind us and avoid the return of stringent public health measures.


Unfortunately, many health care and long-term care personnel remain unvaccinated. As we move towards full FDA approval of the currently available vaccines, all health care workers should get vaccinated for their own health, and to protect their colleagues, families, residents of long-term care facilities and patients. This is especially necessary to protect those who are vulnerable, including unvaccinated children and the immunocompromised.  Indeed, this is why many health care and long-term care organizations already require vaccinations for influenza, hepatitis B, and pertussis. 


We call for all health care and long-term care employers to require their employees to be vaccinated against COVID-19.


We stand with the growing number of experts and institutions that support the requirement for universal vaccination of health workers.2,3 While we recognize some workers cannot be vaccinated because of identified medical reasons and should be exempted from a mandate, they constitute a small minority of all workers. Employers should consider any applicable state laws on a case-by-case basis. 


Existing COVID-19 vaccine mandates have proven effective.4,5 Simultaneously, we recognize the historical mistrust of health care institutions, including among many in our own health care workforce. We must continue to address workers’ concerns, engage with marginalized populations, and work with trusted messengers to improve vaccine acceptance.


As the health care community leads the way in requiring vaccines for our employees, we hope all other employers across the country will follow our lead and implement effective policies to encourage vaccination.  The health and safety of U.S. workers, families, communities, and the nation depends on it.



SIGNATORIES


(Listed Alphabetically)


Academy of Neonatal Nursing (ANN)

Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP)

American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN)

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI)

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)

American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)

American Academy of Neurology (AAN)

American Academy of Nursing (AAN)

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO)

American Academy of PAs (AAPA)

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE)

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)

American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM)

American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN)

American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)

American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI)

American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST)

American College of Clinical Engineering (ACCE)

American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP)

American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP)

American College of Gastroenterology (ACG)

American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)

American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT)

American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS)

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP)

American College of Physicians (ACP)

American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM)

American College of Surgeons (ACS)

American Epilepsy Society (AES)

American Gastroenterological Association (AGA)

American Geriatrics Society (AGS)

American Medical Association (AMA)

American Medical Women's Association (AMWA)

American Nurses Association (ANA)

American Nurses Association - Illinois (ANA - Illinois)

American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA)

American Osteopathic Association (AOA)

American Pharmacists Association (APhA)

American Psychiatric Association (APA)

American Psychological Association (APA)

American Public Health Association (APHA)

American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)

American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE)

American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO)

American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT)

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)

American Society of Hematology (ASH)

American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

American Thoracic Society (ATS)

Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD)

Association for Clinical Oncology (ASCO)

Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses (APHON)

Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)

Association of Academic Health Centers (AAHC)

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)

Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN)

Connecticut Nurses Association (CNA)

Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS)

Delaware Nurses Association (DNA)

Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA)

Emergency Nurses Association (ENA)

Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association (HOPA)

HIV Medicine Association

Illinois Pharmacists Association (IPhA)

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)

LeadingAge

Medical Society of Virginia (MSV)

Missouri State Medical Association (MSMA)

National Association of Indian Nurses of America (NAINA)

National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP)

National Council of Asian Pacific Islander Physicians (NCAPIP)

National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)

National Hispanic Medical Association (NHMA)

National League for Nursing (NLN)

National Medical Association (NMA)

National Pharmaceutical Association (NPhA)

New Hampshire Medical Society (NHMS)

New Hampshire Nurses Association (NHNA)

New Mexico Medical Society (NMMS)

Nurses Who Vaccinate (NWV)

Organization for Associate Degree Nursing (OADN)

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS)

Philippine Nurses Association of America, Inc (PNAA)

Society of Emergency Medicine Physician Assistants (SEMPA)

Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO)

Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)

Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC)

Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM)

Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP)

Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR)

South Carolina Nurses Association (SCNA)

Texas Nurses Association (TNA)

The John A. Hartford Foundation

Transcultural Nursing Society (TCNS)

Vermont Medica Society (VMS)

Virgin Islands State Nurses Association (VISNA)

Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nurses Society (WOCN)




 

When referring to this statement, please cite:
Emanuel EJ and Skorton DJ. Mandating COVID-19 Vaccinations for Health Care Workers. Ann Intern Med. Published online July 30, 2021. https://doi.org/10.7326/M21-3150


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Covid Data Tracker Weekly Review. July 16, 2021.  https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview/index.html [Accessed 22 July 2021].
  2. Weber, D., Al-Tawfiq, J., Babcock, H., Bryant, K., Drees, M., Elshaboury, R., et al. (2021). Multisociety Statement on COVID-19 Vaccination as a Condition of Employment for Healthcare Personnel. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 1-46. doi:10.1017/ice.2021.322
  3. American Hospital Association. AHA Policy Statement on Mandatory COVID-19 Vaccination of Health Care Personnel. July 21, 2021. https://www.aha.org/public-comments/2021-07-21-aha-policy-statement-mandatory-covid-19-vaccination-health-care
  4. Bacon J. ‘Condition of employment’: Hospitals in DC, across the nation follow Houston Methodist in requiring vaccination for workers. USA Today. Available from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/health/2021/06/10/dc-hospitals-others-follow-houston-methodist-requiring-vaccination/7633481002/ [Accessed 22 July 2021].
  5. Paulin E. More Nursing Homes Are Requiring Staff COVID-19 Vaccinations. AARP. Available from: https://www.aarp.org/caregiving/health/info-2021/nursing-homes-covid-vaccine-mandate.html [Accessed 22 July 2021].



Jul 31 '20

School COVID Risk Levels

As the question of how and when to reopen our nation’s schools grows more urgent every day, my colleagues and I developed a new infographic to help schools and parents. It details the risk levels of various normal school activities (riding the bus, eating lunch in the cafeteria, football practice, etc.).

We created this as a public service, so please feel free to tweet, post, email, print, or hang this infographic on your refrigerator. To download the infographic for your own use, click here or here for the Spanish K-12 index.

To check out the original risk index for everyday activities, click here

    • k 12 school risk index final high
    • k 12 risk index 7 risk reducing actions
    • k 12 risk index 2 transportation
    • k 12 risk index 3 routine classwork
    • k 12 risk index 3 routine classwork
  • Previous
  • Next
    • k 12 risk index 4 lunchtime
    • k 12 risk index 5 arts humanities
    • k 12 risk index 6 recess athletics
    • k 12 risk index 6 recess athletics
  • Previous
  • Next
Categories: Feature Writing

Jun 30 '20

COVID-19 Activity Risk Levels

With no clear direction from the federal government on how to handle the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s been hard to decide what’s safe and unsafe as states begin to open up. There's no right answer; you just need to know the risks and how much risk you're willing to take. That's why Professor Saskia Popescu, an infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Arizona, Dr. James P. Phillips, MD, the Chief of Disaster Medicine at GWU Emergency Medicine, and I developed a COVID-19 Risk Index to help you do this, based on four key factors:


1) Enclosed space

2) Duration of interaction

3) Crowds

4) Forceful exhalation   


Again, we hope this Risk Index is helpful to you as you decide what you are comfortable doing as these activities become available. We created this as a public service, so please feel free to tweet, post, e-mail, and print and hang this on your refrigerator or around your workplace. You can download the infographic here, or here for the Spanish language version

Other available translations:

Portuguese risk index

French risk index

Turkish risk index 

    • covid 19 risk infographic esp veryhigh
    • covid 19 spanish risk index final 7 14 20
    • covid 19 1 risk index
    • covid 19 2 low risk 1
    • covid 19 3 low medium risk
    • covid 19 4 medium risk
    • covid 19 5 medium high risk
    • covid 19 6 high risk
Categories: Featured , Feature Writing

Mar 24 '20

Fourteen Days. That's the Most Time We Have to Defeat Coronavirus. (New York Times)

Read the Article. March 24, 2020. New York Times. 

Categories: Opinions , Feature Writing

Jan 22 '20

We Protected My Terminally-Ill Father From The System (The Atlantic)


Sep 6 '19

No One Likes Surprise Medical Bills. So Why Does Congressional Action Seem So Unlikely? (Washington Post)

Washington Post. September 2019. Read the article


Aug 2 '19

Democrats Are Having the Wrong Health Care Debate (New York Times)


Apr 11 '19

Big Pharma’s Go-To Defense of Soaring Drug Prices Doesn’t Add Up (The Atlantic)


Apr 5 '19

Republicans and Democrats Might Be Able to Make a Deal on Drug Pricing

Read the article.

The Washington Post, November 2018.


Mar 8 '17

How Republicans Plan to Ration Health Care (The New York Times)

Click here to read the article.

 

Published on March 7, 2017 in the New York Times Opinions section.

Categories: Opinions , Feature Writing

Jun 9 '16

The Secret Washington Battle Determining Drug Prices (Huffington Post)


May 31 '16

Want to win $2 billion? Create the next antibiotic. (Washington Post)


Mar 15 '16

How Obamacare Is Changing the Startup World (Fortune)


Sep 9 '15

The Solution to Drug Prices (The New York Times)


Jul 31 '15

Should We Charge Patients for Medical Research? (New York Times)

Link to the article.


New York Times, July 31, 2015

Categories: Opinions , Feature Writing

Jul 8 '15

The Coming Shock in Health-Care Cost Increases (The Wall Street Journal)


May 6 '15

How to Solve the E.R. Problem (The New York Times)


Jan 10 '15

Skip Your Annual Physical (New York Times)

read this article

New York Times, January, 2015

Categories: Opinions , Feature Writing