As the question of how and when to reopen our nation’s schools grows more urgent every day, my colleagues and I developed a new infographic to help schools and parents. It details the risk levels of various normal school activities (riding the bus, eating lunch in the cafeteria, football practice, etc.).
We created this as a public service, so please feel free to tweet, post, email, print, or hang this infographic on your refrigerator. To download the infographic for your own use, click here or here for the Spanish K-12 index.
To check out the original risk index for everyday activities, click here.
Persad GC, Emanuel EJ.
Hastings Center Report, September 2017.
When Dr. Hortense screens her patients in Chicago for cervical dysplasia and cancer, she conducts a pelvic exam, takes a sample of cervical cells, and sends them for Pap cytology and human papilloma virus DNA co-testing. But when she conducts cervical cancer screening in Botswana, she employs a much simpler diagnostic strategy. She applies acetic acid to highlight precancerous lesions and visually inspects the cervix-a technique known as the VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid) method. She treats suspicious lesions with cryotherapy. There are multiple reasons that Dr. Hortense uses VIA in developing countries. It requires no specialized laboratory facilities or highly trained personnel. With immediate results, there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment, ensuring that patients are not lost to follow-up. Most importantly, VIA is considerably cheaper than Pap and HPV co-testing. This difference in care between Chicago and Botswana presents an ethical dilemma in global health: is it ethically acceptable to provide some patients cheaper treatments that are less effective or more toxic than the treatments other patients receive? We argue that it is ethical to consider local resource constraints when deciding what interventions to provide. The provision of cheaper, less effective health care is frequently the most effective way of promoting health and realizing the ethical values of utility, equality, and priority to the worst off.